Joseph Marie Jacquard
(1752-1834) - Jacquard Loom
In 1804, French silk weaver Joseph
Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard Loom that weaved complex designs.
Jacquard invented a way of automatically controlling the warp and weft
threads on a silk loom by recording patterns of holes in a string of cards.
Jacquard cards were later modified and evolved into computing punch
cards by Charles Babbage and later Herman
According to Wikipedia*: Joseph
Marie Jacquard was born at Lyon,
France on the 7th of July 1752. On the death of his father, who was a working
weaver, be inherited two looms, with which Joseph
Marie Jacquard started business on
his own account. Joseph
Marie Jacquard did not, however,
prosper, and was at last forced to become a limeburner at Bresse, while his wife
supported herself at Lyon by plaiting straw.
In 1793, Joseph
Marie Jacquard took part in the unsuccessful defense of Lyon against the
troops of the Convention; but afterwards served in their ranks on the Rhóne and
Loire. After seeing some active service, in which his young son was shot down at
his side, Joseph
Marie Jacquard again returned to Lyon.
Marie Jacquard was employed in a factory, and use his spare time in
constructing his improved loom, of which he had conceived the idea several years
previously. In 1801, he exhibited his invention at the industrial exhibition at
Paris; and in 1803 he was summoned to Paris to work for the Conservatoire des
Arts et Métiers. A loom by Jacques de Vaucanson (1709—1782), deposited there,
suggested various improvements in his own, which he gradually perfected to its
Marie Jacquard's invention was fiercely
opposed by the silk-weavers, who feared that its introduction, owing to the
saving of labor, would deprive them of their livelihood. However, its advantages
secured its general adoption, and by 1812 there were 11,000 looms in use in
France. The loom was declared public property in 1806, and Jacquard was rewarded
with a pension and a royalty on each machine.
Marie Jacquard died at Oullins (Rhóne) on
the 7th of August 1834, and six years later a statue was erected to him at Lyon.
Revolution - Timeline of the Textile Industry
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