History of Concrete and Cement
Concrete is a material used in building
construction, consisting of a hard, chemically inert particulate substance,
known as an aggregate (usually made from different types of sand and gravel),
that is bonded together by cement and water.
The Assyrians and Babylonians used
clay as the bonding substance or cement. The Egyptians used lime and gypsum
cement. In 1756, British engineer, John Smeaton made the first modern concrete
(hydraulic cement) by adding pebbles as a coarse aggregate and mixing powered
brick into the cement. In 1824, English inventor, Joseph Aspdin invented
Portland Cement, which has remained the dominant cement used in concrete
production. Joseph Aspdin created the first true artificial cement by burning
ground limestone and clay together. The burning process changed the chemical
properties of the materials and Joseph Aspdin created a stronger cement
than what using plain crushed limestone would produce.
The other major part of concrete
besides the cement is the aggregate. Aggregates include sand, crushed
stone, gravel, slag, ashes, burned shale, and burned clay. Fine aggregate
(fine refers to the size of aggregate) is used in making concrete slabs
and smooth surfaces. Coarse aggregate is used for massive structures or
sections of cement.
Concrete that includes imbedded metal
(usually steel) is called reinforced concrete or ferroconcrete. Reinforced
concrete was invented (1849) by Joseph Monier, who received a patent in
1867. Joseph Monier was a Parisian gardener who made garden pots and tubs
of concrete reinforced with an iron mesh. Reinforced concrete combines
the tensile or bendable strength of metal and the compressional strength
of concrete to withstand heavy loads. Joseph Monier exhibited his invention
at the Paris Exposition of 1867. Besides his pots and tubs, Joseph Monier
promoted reinforced concrete for use in railway ties, pipes, floors, arches,
of Structural Concrete Case Studies
Buildings that were significant
to the development of the architectonic language of reinforced concrete.
Each one was a proving ground, in one way or another, for design techniques,
construction methods or spatial delineation.
Wolf Hilbertz, German architect
and inventor is the father of sea-cretion, the electrolytic deposition
of sea-shell-like minerals from seawater that creates a construction material.
Patented on January the 20th, 1981.
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