You are here:

FREE Newsletter

Inventors Robert Bower
Robert Bower's invention, one of 24 he has patented, is officially called the "Field-Effect Device with Insulated Gate," known as the "Self-Aligned Gate MOSFET." Patented in 1969, the device provided semiconductors with the speed they needed to serve in modern microelectronic applications. Bower developed it while working at the Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu, California.

Robert Bower
Robert Bower invented a device that provided semiconductors with more speed - National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Dr. Robert Bower, UC Davis
Robert Bower was elected in 1997 as a member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame for the invention of the self aligned-gate MOSFET.

Leo Esaki

Leo EsakiIBM Press Release: Leo Esaki was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 for his discovery of tunneling in semiconductors. Tunneling is a quantum mechanical effect in which an electron passes through a potential barrier even though classical theory predicted that it could not. Dr. Esaki's discovery led to the creation of the Esaki diode, an important component of solid state physics with practical applications in high-speed circuits found in computers and communications networks. Dr. Esaki shared the 1973 Nobel Prize with physicists Ivar Giaever of Norway and Brian D. Josephson of Great Britain.

The Nobel Prize recognized achievements by Dr. Esaki while working as a researcher at Sony Corp. from 1956 to 1960. He joined IBM in 1960 as a researcher at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., and was named an IBM Fellow in 1965.

Born on March 12, 1925 in Osaka, Japan, Leo Esaki was educated at the University of Tokyo, where he received his bachelor's degree in 1947 and his doctorate degree in 1959. Before joining Sony, he spent nine years as a researcher at Kobe Kogyo Corp. in Japan. In 1993, Dr. Esaki retired from IBM and accepted an appointment as president of the University of Tsukuba, considered Japan's most technologically advanced university.

Related Innovations

Photos Courtesy of International Business Machines Corporation. Unauthorized use not permitted.

©Mary Bellis

Subscribe to the Newsletter

From Mary Bellis,
Your Guide to Inventors.
FREE Newsletter. Sign Up Now!

Important disclaimer information about this About site.

Newsletters & RSSEmail to a friendAdd to
All Topics | Email Article | |
Our Story | Be a Guide | Advertising Info | News & Events | Work at About | Site Map | Reprints | Help
User Agreement | Ethics Policy | Patent Info. | Privacy Policy | Kids' Privacy Policy

©2006 About, Inc., A part of The New York Times Company. All rights reserved.
Mental Health

Depression Self-Test Vitamins for Depression? Bipolar Red Flags Coping With Disasters Celebrities With Bipolar

What's Hot

Gyroscopes - Elmer Sperry and Charles Stark Draper Gyroscope...Angel AlcalaThe History of the BikiniRusi Taleyarkhan Jack Johnson